EL INSTITUTO REYES

¿Con el mismo paternalismo con el que la Real Academia de la Lengua Española (RAE) vio a la Academia Mexicana de la Lengua (AML) durante muchos años, dada la numerosa presencia de inmigrantes mexicanos y sus descendientes tendríamos que empezar a ver los hablantes de español en México a los hispanoparlantes en Estados Unidos?

La pregunta se la hago al director de la AML, el poeta y filósofo Jaime Labastida que –en una entrega anterior de esta columna– nos ha explicado que la situación de las academias correspondientes con la RAE cambió a partir de 1951 cuando, en un congreso celebrado en México, se integró la Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española:

“La situación del español en Estados Unidos es muy compleja. Si en México tenemos muchas formas de habla, allá la diversidad es mayúscula.

“La Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española tiene apenas 45 años de haber sido fundada. No tiene sede y se han reunidos sólo dos veces en todo ese tiempo. El primer congreso fue hace cuatro años en Washington y el segundo este año, también en la capital. Sus miembros se comunican vía internet, antes lo hacían por correo ordinario. Unos viven en Nueva York, otros en D.C., otros en California, otros en Texas. Publican un periódico que se llama Glosas, pero insisto el trabajo es muy complejo.

“Solamente en fechas recientes han admitido a un hablante de ascendencia mexicana, a un chicano. La Academia Norteamericana está conformada por gente de muchos países y con hablas diferentes, desde españoles y argentinos hasta puertorriqueños.

“Desde luego, en la Academia Mexicana tenemos miembros correspondientes: en Berkely tenemos uno, en Santa Bárbara, otro, y vamos a nombrar uno más en Los Ángeles. Pero lo que hemos pensado en la AML es que no basta con tener correspondientes. Queremos formar un Capítulo Mexicano con sede en alguna ciudad de Estados Unidos, para agrupar precisamente a los chicanos”.

Labastida invita a “reconocer que los españoles han sido muy hábiles y muy fuertes en la defensa del idioma. Lo consideran un activo económico y han formado el Instituto Cervantes, para la enseñanza del español en una gran cantidad de países. Yo propuse hace más de seis años, y todos me dijeron que sí, formar el Instituto Alfonso Reyes para la enseñanza del español en los Estados Unidos, pero no hay dinero.

“Por eso, digo en broma pero muy en serio, que nuestro verdadero himno nacional es el Son de la Negra, porque a todos nos dicen que sí pero no nos dicen cuándo. Como sea, hay una base muy firme para hacerlo: tenemos en la Unión Americana más de 40 consulados y esos pueden ser los lugares donde se enseñe el español de México.

“También en Brasil, donde el español es la segunda lengua de enseñanza, podríamos tener el Instituto Reyes. Y hasta en China, donde hay una facultad de Español en la Universidad de Lenguas Extranjeras, con miles de alumnos.

En lo que se refiere a la Academia Mexicana, abunda Labastida: “No estamos subordinados a la RAE. La AML está haciendo una labor propia. Por ejemplo, estamos editando ahora libros nuestros. Tenemos una comisión de consultas, con un sitio web donde se contesta a preguntas de fácil respuesta, como lo que hace la agencia EFE con la Fundéu (Fundación del Español Urgente), solo que nosotros lo llamamos Espín (Español Inmediato).

EL LENGUAJE DE GÉNERO

Inevitable no pedir al director de la AML su opinión respecto al lenguaje incluyente:

“Así como las academias no imponemos el habla de la gente, los políticos o las feministas tampoco tienen por qué hacerlo. La lengua se ha hecho a lo largo de siglos y la ha hecho el pueblo.

“Yo pongo ejemplos muy sencillos: decimos ‘el sillón’ y ‘la silla’, el primero es masculino y la segunda femenina pero no son macho y hembra. El género es un accidente gramatical, no tiene que ver con el sexo.

“Hay incluso en español un género gramatical muy extraño, el epiceno, que es común de dos: decimos ‘el águila’, no decimos ‘águilo’, es el águila macho y el águila hembra; decimos ‘la ballena’, y no decimos ‘balleno’, porque son ballena macho y ballena hembra; decimos ‘la rata’, que es la rata macho y la rata hembra. Todos son femeninos y los varones no protestamos por eso.

“No es género femenino, es epiceno: común de dos. Es por razones políticas que ahora se habla del lenguaje incluyente. Conozco a muchas mujeres que están en contra de eso, les parece un absurdo tener que aprender a hablar de nuevo”.

Y luego se inventan palabras horrendas como ‘gerenta’ o ‘presidenta’, le digo. “Ahí la desinencia es ‘ente’. Se debe decir ‘la presidente’ –abunda Labastida–. El juez y la juez. O qué, ¿vas a decir el joven y la ‘jovan’? Decimos el o la artista, que también es epiceno”.

En cambio, muchos dicen poetisa. “Poetisa tiene muchos siglos en uso, así como sacerdote y sacerdotisa, o tigre y tigresa. Pero ahora las mujeres quieren que se refieran a ellas como la poeta”.

En el colmo, parece que inventaron un nuevo tipo de esperanto, aquella lengua universal que nadie aceptó por artificial. “Para ser incluyentes inventan un nuevo idioma, en donde ‘todos’ se sustituye por ‘todes’”.

Tampoco en eso las academias quieren convertirse en guardianes de la norma. “Estamos discutiendo el asunto como en todas las academias porque el ruido que se hace con el problema político es muy grande. La actual vicepresidente del gobierno español quiere reformar la Constitución para que, aunque no lo acepte la Real Academia, tenga lenguaje incluyente. Como la Constitución de Venezuela que es una estupidez mayúscula.

“A la academia le toca discutir el tema, airearlo, escuchar las razones. Y esperar a ver qué se impone finalmente: si el uso logra, como quieren las feministas, cambiar esos sufijos, tal vez dentro de un siglo la gente aprenda a habar de otra manera. A mí me cuesta mucho trabajo. A ver, trata de hablar así…”

Algunos se adaptan pero siempre es en detrimento de la economía del lenguaje, añado. “Lo acabas de decir, el lenguaje tiende a la economía y añadirle más es inútil. Yo nunca me dirijo cuando hablo en público a ‘todos y todas’, bienvenidos y bienvenidas, digo bienvenidos simplemente. Nada de estudiantes y ‘estudiantas’”.

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