¿INTERNET SALVÓ A LA RADIO?

Hace una década la radio enfrentaba un serio problema: estaba perdiendo las audiencias masivas que llegó a tener en épocas pasadas y los programas exitosos captaban la atención de públicos cada vez más limitados. Pero el principal problema de audiencia que mostraba el medio era que no se estaba dando un recambio generacional en el público de la radio.

Una década atrás, “quienes escuchaban la radio de forma recurrente eran grupos de población de cierta edad y los jóvenes ‘pasaban’ de ese tipo de contenido. Lo hacían por culpa de la televisión primero y de la red después”, reseña la redacción de Puro Marketing en un artículo orientado a demostrar que el internet, al contrario de lo que se piensa, no está matando a la radio.

Con el título ‘¿Ha salvado internet a la radio tradicional?’ (https://www.puromarketing.com/46/32500/salvado-internet-radio-tradicional.html), esta publicación electrónica especializada en mercadotecnia asegura en el texto fechado el 5 de septiembre de 2019 que crece “la cantidad de oyentes de nuevos formatos, como los podcasts, o de radio ‘de siempre’ a través de la red”.

Hace una década era tan complicado el momento de la radio tradicional, que el primer apagón analógico de los medios de comunicación debió haber sido éste y no el de la televisión cuadrada. Pero resultó un fiasco porque las radiodifusoras sintieron que no merecía la pena dar el salto a lo digital (que tuvo que haberse dado en 2011, según el plan) “y también porque temían una mayor fragmentación de audiencias”.

Pero eso no significa que la radio no cambió. El medio que estaba en una situación crítica hace más de diez años, “se encuentra ahora en una situación nueva y sorprendente”. Vive “una especie de nueva juventud, de revival” (renacimiento).

“Los podcasts se han convertido en un mercado al alza”. Ya no son “algo de nicho” sino un producto de “consumo cada vez más generalizado”. El éxito de algunos podcasts influyentes, el impacto que han tenido los smartphones y la alta capacidad de internet móvil, han ayudado a posicionar este tipo de contenidos y volverlos comunes en los hábitos de consumo de los usuarios.

“La previsiones a futuro sobre hacia dónde irá el mercado del podcast, al que cada día se están sumando más y más players” (Apple es uno de los que más ha crecido en contenido propio), “hablan de contenidos exclusivos en las diferentes plataformas y también de personalizados”, como apunta un análisis de Financial Times.

Y, por supuesto, todo este crecimiento se traduce en más ingresos. Las proyecciones apuntan a que la cantidad de dinero que los anunciantes invertirán en los podcasts “será cada vez más elevada”.

CRECE LA RADIO ONLINE:

Un podcast es una manera de acceder a los contenidos radiofónicos, al igual que ocurre con las series de televisión y películas como contenidos bajo demanda en las plataformas de VoD (video on demand). Pero ¿qué ocurre con la radio ‘de siempre’?

Internet ha creado grandes oportunidades para llegar a nuevos oyentes y también ha cambiado los hábitos de los radioescuchas/consumidores. Cada vez son más quienes escuchan la radio en internet. En España, un 46.2% de internautas escucha radio en la red, según los datos de la Asociación para la Investigación de Medios de Comunicación (AIMC). Un 35% de los oyentes generales de la radio escucha contenidos en directo (radio online) y un 30% se queda con contenidos en diferido (podcast).

Los oyentes de radio online usan sus celulares para acceder a los contenidos, de manera similar a lo que ocurre con los podcasts y otro tipo de contenidos de voz.

BOOM DE AUDIOLIBROS

Si bien los audiolibros no son radio online, su creciente presencia en los hábitos de consumo de libros de los españoles ayuda a comprender cuánto ha cambiado la relación de los consumidores con la palabra ‘leída’.

Un estudio de Storytel, una de las plataformas de audiobooks que operan en España, señalaba no hace mucho que los usuarios de audiolibros consumen más libros desde que empezaron a escucharlos además de leerlos. La conclusión del estudio es que “los usuarios de audiolibros afirman leer muchos libros”, muchos más libros que antes.

El último Barómetro de Hábitos de Lectura y Compra de Libros de la Federación de Gremios de Editores de España, es otro de los elementos que confirma que los españoles están cada vez más familiarizados con el audiolibro, lo que demuestra que está cada vez más hecho al nuevo formato de consumo de contenidos de audio.

Según Storytel, los oyentes incorporan esos contenidos a los que eran momentos muertos. Un 62.02% escucha audiobooks de camino al trabajo, un 54.47% haciendo ejercicio, un 49.04% viajando y un 40.38% mientras limpian su casa.

El pico del interés por este tipo de contenidos se puede ver en el crecimiento de las editoriales en este terreno. “En este último año, la oferta de audiolibros en español ha crecido en un 50%”, explicaba en las conclusiones del estudio Álex Gibelalde, country manager en España de Storytel.

El lanzamiento de la última novela de E. L. James, la autora superventas de las Cincuenta sombras…, por ejemplo, lo realizó Penguin Random House simultáneamente en libro (impreso e ebook) y en audiolibro.

NETFLIX DE AUDIOBOOKS

En 2009, a cuatro años de fundada en Suecia por Jonas Tellander y Jon Hauksson, Storytel resultaba una aplicación de audiolibros que, aunque novedosa, parecía condenada al fracaso.

Fue entonces cuando, sin dinero pero con la fe en su modelo de negocio intacta, Tellander se presentó en el programa de televisión Draknästet (‘La guarida del dragón’), una especie de concurso donde grandes inversores escuchan las propuestas de los emprendedores (similar a Shark Tank), contaba Stefania Gozzer Arias en ‘El Netflix de los audiolibros’, publicada en El País el 4 de mayo de 2017 (https://elpais.com/economia/2017/04/28/actualidad/1493373141_333836.html).

Hace dos años Storytel ya agrupaba a varias empresas que ingresaron 77.3 millones de euros en 2016, y preparaba su aterrizaje en España. Pero el arranque fue difícil. Admite Tellander que “empezamos demasiado pronto. En 2005 poca gente usaba apps: aún quedaban tres años para que apareciera el iPhone, no había Android y todavía no se había inventado Spotify”.

Los fundadores de Storytel intentaron hacerse con la licencia en Suecia de Audible, el servicio de audiolibros que luego sería adquirido por Amazon. No lo consiguieron y decidieron diseñar uno al que introdujeron dos elementos que se convertirían en el sello distintivo: poder usarse directamente desde el celular y dar al cliente acceso ilimitado a todo el catálogo a cambio de una cuota mensual.

Un par de años después del lanzamiento, poca gente utilizaba Storytel y la crisis financiera de 2007 terminó de hundir el proyecto. Así fue como Tellander fue a la televisión a levantar recursos.

NADAR CON TIBURONES

Logró convencer a uno de los inversores de inyectar en su empresa el equivalente en coronas suecas a 100 mil  euros, a cambio del 10% de las acciones.

Con presencia además en Noruega, Holanda, Dinamarca, Polonia, Finlandia, España, Rusia, India y Arabia Saudita, entre otros mercados, en Suecia –donde tiene el 60% de las ventas– Storytel lanza títulos nuevos cada día: publica mil al año.

“Realizar un audiolibro tarda una semana de trabajo completo. El texto se lee tal y como está en el papel y el producto final suele durar unas 10 horas. Pero los actores tardan unas 15 en grabar, antecedidas por un par de días de ensayos y seguidas de otra jornada de revisión. Luego toca editar”. Producir un audiobook cuesta entre cuatro y cinco mil euros. Y los 380 mil suscriptores que había en 2017 pagaban cada uno 18 euros al mes.

EL PAPEL SOBREVIVIRÁ

Oír un libro es una actividad “portátil” que permite las multitareas. Aun así, Tellander no cree que la gente vaya a dejar de leer libros. Storytel adquirió de hecho editoriales como Norstedts Förlagsgrupp, la más antigua de Suecia, y People’s Press, una de las más importantes de Dinamarca, para acceder con facilidad a las novedades sin tener que negociar los derechos por cada título.

En 2016 empezó a crear contenido propio y exclusivo, al estilo de Netflix con las series. Esto, sumado a las grabaciones de títulos de sus propias editoriales, hace que el 40% de los siete millones de audiolibros de su catálogo hayan nacido dentro del grupo. El servicio muchas veces también incluye la versión escrita en digital, por si el usuario prefiere leer a escuchar en algún momento.

Mi correo electrónico: carvajalberber@gmail.com.

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